Identification of sources for drought tolerance in local bread wheat landraces


1 Department of Genetics and National Plant Gene Bank of Iran, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P. O. Box: 31359-33151, Karaj, Iran.

2 Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Varamin, Iran.


In order to identify drought tolerant germplasm, 97 bread wheat landraces, mostly Iranian genotypes, were evaluated in two separate experiments of normal and drought stress conditions in the field of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin. The experiments were performed in lattice statistical design with three replications. Drought conditions in the stress experiment was exerted by irrigation stoppage at the spike emerging stage. Agronomic traits were measured and drought tolerance indices were calculated. The results of combined ANOVA indicated significant differences among genotypes and between conditions as well as genotype  × conditions interaction for all the evaluated traits. STI, GMP, HM and MP were known as the best indices for the selection of drought tolerant genotypes. Thirty genotypes, located in A region of Fernandez grouping method, had a higher grain yield in both stress and normal conditions. Four principal components explained 71.44% of the total variation. The first component differentiated drought tolerant genotypes with early spike emerging and the second one emphasized on later spike emergence, larger harvest index and shorter plant height. The results of this research identified a large number of superior drought tolerant genotypes which could be exploited in wheat drought breeding programs.


Aghaee-Sarbarzeh M., Rajabi R., Haghparast R., and Mohammadi R. (2008). Evaluation and selection of bread wheat genotypes using physiological traits and drought tolerance indices. Seed and Plant, 24: 579-599.
Alavi Sini S. M., Saba J., and Nasiri J. (2013). Evaluation of some physiological traits in drought tolerant lines of bread wheat in rainfed conditions. Seed and Plant, 29: 637-657.
Amirifar E., Aghaee Sarbarze M., Haghparast R., and Khosroushahli M. (2011). Yield Stability, Bread Making Quality and Drought Tolerance in Bread Wheat Genotypes. Seed and Plant, 27: 233-255.
Arshad Y., and Zahravi M. (2012). Identification of drought tolerant genotypes in selected wheat genetic resources in the National Plant Gene-Bank of Iran. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 13: 157-177.
Blum A. (1988). Plant breeding for stress environments. CRC Press, pp. 223.
Chaves M. M., Maroco J. P., and Pereira J. S. (2003). Understanding plant responses to drought: from gene to the whole plant. Functional Plant Biology, 30: 239–264.
El-Maghraby M. A., Moussa M. E., Hana N. S., and Agrama H. A. (2005).  Combining ability under drought stress relative to SSR diversity in common wheat. Euphytica, 141: 301–308.
Fernandez G. C. (1992). Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. Proceedings of the international symposium on adaptation of vegetables and other food crops in temperature and water stress, Tanian, Taiwan, 257-270.
Fischer R. A., and Maurer R. (1978). Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield response. Australian Jouranal of Agricultural Research, 29: 897-912.
Khezri Afrawi M., Hoseinzadeh A., Mohammadi V., and Ahmadi A. (2010). Evaluation of Drought Resistance in some Iranian Landraces of Durum Wheat (Triticumturgidum). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 41: 741-753.
Kumar S., Sehgal S. K., Kumar U., Prasad P. V. V., Joshi A. K., and Gill B. S. (2012). Genomic characterization of drought tolerance-related traits in spring wheat. Euphytica,  186: 265–276.
Ludlow M. M., and Muchow R. C. (1990). A critical evaluation of traits for improving crop yield in water-limited environments. Advances in Agronomy, 43: 107–153.
Marcinska I., Czyczyło-Mysza I., Skrzypek E., FilekM., Grzesiak S., Grzesiak M. T., Janowiak F., Hura T. Dziurka M., Dziurka K., Nowakowska A., and Quarrie S. A. (2013).  Impact of osmotic stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics in drought-susceptible and drought-resistant wheat genotypes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum,  35: 451-461.
Morris M. L., Belaid A., and Byerlee D. (1991). Wheat and barley production in rainfed marginal environments of the developing world. Part I of 1990-91, CIMMYT world wheat facts and trends, Prepared in collaboration with ICARAD, Mexico, Federal District Mexico City (D.F.), CIMMYT, pp. 51.
Moslemi, M., Roustaii, M., and Rashidi V. (2012). Evaluation of grain yield and yield components in bread wheat genotypes under different moisture regimes. Seed and Plant, 28: 611-630.
NaderiA., Akbari Moghaddam H., and Mahmoodi K. (2013). Evaluation of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Terminal Drought Stress Tolerance in South-Warm Regions of Iran. Seed and Plant, 29: 601-616.
Ortiz R., Braun H. J., Crossa J., Crouch J., Davenport G., Dixon J., Dreisigacker S., Duveiller E., He Z., Huerta J., and Joshi A. K. (2008). Wheat genetic resources enhancement by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 55: 1140–1195.
Rosielle A. A, and Hamblin J. (1981). Theoretical aspects of selection for yield in stress and non - stress environments. Crop Science, 21: 943 - 946.
Saidi A., Haghighi, A. A., Bakhtiar, F., Mehravar, M. R., and Nategh, Z. (2005). Characteristics of improved bread wheat, durum wheat, barley, triticale and rye cultivars released during 1930-2003. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, 12-67.
Van Ginkel M., Calhoun D. S., Gebeyehu G., Miranda A., Tian-you C., Pargas Lara R., Trethowan R.M., Sayre K., Crossa J., and Rajaram S. (1998). Plant traits related to yield of wheat in early, late, or continuous drought conditions. Euphytica, 100: 109–121.
Winter S. R., Musick, J. T., and Porter K. B. (1988). Evaluation of screening techniques for breeding drought resistant winter wheat. Crop Science, 28: 512–516.