Biplot Analysis of diallel crosses for yield and some morphological traits in durum wheat


1 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Iran, y, P.O. Box 119.

2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, Post code: 4147654919.

3 Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Gachsaran Station, Iran, Post code: 7581818449.


Six varieties of durum wheat were included in a full diallel mating design during 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 cropping seasons in the farm of Maragheh Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Iran. Parental durum wheat genotypes and their complete diallel progenies were grown in a randomized complete block design with two replications in the growing seasons of 2005-06. The highest values of number of seeds per spike, one hundred seed weight and seed yield were obtained in Gerdish. The GCA effects indicated that Zardak was an ideal general combiner for one hundred seed weight, coleoptile length, number of germinated seeds, number of seeds per spike, growth vigor and radicle length. Crosses of Knd1149//68/ward × Waha and Zardak × Chehel daneh exhibited the highest value of seed yield and significant heterosis. Graphic analysis indicated that the hybrid between Knd1149//68/ward and Waha was the best hybrid for seed yield, because it integrated the four genes (A2, D1, D2 and probably D3) for seed yield. Zardak, Knd1149//68/ward and Gerdish can be used either as the best parents for selection programs based on their GCA effects, or as a superior parent in hybrid programs based on their SCA effects.

Baker R J. 1978. Issues in Diallel Analysis. Crop Science, 18: 533-536.

Barnard A.D., Labuschagne M.T., and Van Niekerk H.A. 2002. Heritability estimates of bread wheat quality traits in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Euphytica, 127: 115-122.

Chalish, L. and S. Houshmand. 2011. Estimate of heritability and relationship of some durum wheat characters using recombinant inbred lines. Electonic Journal of Crop Protection, 4 (2): 223-238. (In Persian)

Crossa J., and Cornelus P.L. 1997. Sites regresion and shifted multiplicative model clustering of cultivar trials sites under heterogenety of variantes. Crop Science, 37: 406–415.

Dehghani H., Moghaddam M., Bihamta M.R., Sabaghnia N., and Mohammadi R. 2013. Biplot analysis of diallel data in strip rust of wheat. Australian Plant Pathathology Socity, 42(5):  601-608.

Dehghani H., Torabi M., Moghadam M., and Ghanadha M. 2005. Biplot analysis of diallel cross data for infection type of wheat stripe rust. Seed Plant Improvement Journal, 21 (1):123-138.

Dere S., and Yildirim M.B. 2006. Inheritance of grain yield per plant, flag leaf width, and length in an 8 x 8 Diallel cross population of bread wheat (T. aestivum L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture, 30: 339-345.

Farshadfar E., and Farshadfar H. 2013. Biplot analysis for detection of heterotic crosses and estimation of additive and dominance components of genetic variation for drought tolerance in bread bheat (Triticum aestivum). Agriculture Communication, 1(1): 1-7.

Farshadfar E., and Hasheminasab H. 2012. Investigating the combining ability and genetic constitution of physiological indicators of drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using GGE biplot methods. International Journal of Plant Breeding, 6: 121-128.

Farshadfar E., Hasheminasab H., and Yaghotipoor A. 2012. Estimation of combining ability and gene action for improvement drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using GGE biplot techniques. Journal of Agriculture Science, 4(9): 1–10.

Griffing B. 1956. Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 9: 463-493.

Joshi S.K., Sharma S.N., Singhania D.L., and Sain R.S. 2004. Combining ability in the F1 and F2 generations of diallel cross in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell). Hereditas, 141: 115-121.

Karimizadeh R., Mohammadi M., Sabaghnia N., and Shefazadeh M.K., Pouralhossini J. 2012. Univariate stability analysis methods for determining genotype × environment interaction of durum wheat grain yield. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 2563-2573.

Krishnamoorthy G. 2005. A study of heterotic relationships in sorghum. Ph.D. thesis, Texas A&M University.

Malla S., Ibrahim A.M.H., Glover K.D., and Berzonsky, W.A. 2010. Combining ability for fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Communications in Biometry and Crop Science, 5 (2): 116–126.

Mather K, and Jink J.L. 1977. Introduction to Biometrical Genetics; Chapter 3: Additive and dominant effects. Ist. Ed. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London:p. 33-35.

Mousavi, S.S., B. Yazdi-Samadi, A.A. Zali and M.R. Ghanadha. 2006. Study GCA and SCA effects of quantitative traits of wheat in normal and water stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 37-1: 227-238. (In Persian)

Mostafavi K., and Zabet M. 2013. Genetic Study of Yield and some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat Using Biplot of Diallel Data. Seed Plant Improvement Journal, 29-1: 503-520.

Mostafavi K., Choukan R., Taeb M., Majidi Heravan E., and Bihamta, M.R. 2012. Heterotic Grouping of Iranian Maize Inbred Lines Based on Yield - Specific Combining Ability in Diallel Crosses and GGE Biplot. Journal of Research Agriculture Science, 8(2): 113- 125

Rastogi A., Mishra B.K., Srivastava M., Siddiqui A., and Shukla S. 2011. Biplot approach for identification of het-


     erotic crosses in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Journal of Botanical, 11: 1–7.

SAS. 2005. SAS/STAT User´s Guide Version 9.1. SASInstitute, Cary, NC, USA.

Sharifi P. 2012. Graphic analysis of salinity tolerance traits of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using biplot method. Cereal Research Commonication, 40(3): 416–424.

Sharifi P. 2013. Genotype plus genotype by environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis of nutrient quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 38(2): 9–20.

Sharifi P., and Safari Motlagh M.R. 2011. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses for cold tolerance in rice at the germination stage. Crop and Pasture Science, 62(2): 169–176.

USDA. 2009. Global Durum Wheat Production. Available at,  WheatYearbook.aspx.

Wynne J.C., Enery D.A., and Rice P.H. 1970. Combining ability estimation in Arachis hypogaea. L. II. Field performance of F1 hybrids. Crop Science, 10: 713-715.

Yan W. 2001. GGE biplot-a Windows application for graphical analysis of multienvironment trial data and other types of two-way data. Agronomy Journal, 93: 1111–1118.

Yan W., and Hunt A. 2002. Biplot analysis of diallel data. Crop Science, 42: 21–30.

Yan W., Hunt L.A., Sheng Q., and Szlavnics Z. 2000. Cultivar evaluation and megaenvironment investigation based on the GGE biplot. Crop Science, 40: 597–605.

Yan W., and Kang M. 2003. GGE Biplot Analysis: A Graphical Tool for Breeders, Geneticists, and Agronomists. CRC Press, 288 pages.