Genetic diversity among Elaeagnus angustifolia L. populations based on some morphological traits and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

Authors

1 Department of Plant Biology, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran. P. O. Box: 54165/161.

2 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran, P. O. Box: 54165/161.

Abstract

Elaeagnus angustifolia L. is a Eurasian tree that has become naturalized and has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. In this study, a combination of morphological traits and RAPD markers were used to study the presence or absence of an association between genetic variation and morphological features among five populations of E. angustifolia collected from the East Azarbaijan of Iran. Data analysis of 19 different morphological traits, according to Nei’s genetic distance matrix using Nei’s in GenAlEx 6.5, showed that genetic distance coefficient ranged from 0.014 (between Jolfa and Ahar populations) to 0.86 (between Jolfa/Marand and Meianeh populations). The cluster analysis based on UPGMA and dendrogram plotted using NTSYSpc 2.02 software, revealed 4 main clusters. RAPD analysis using four random primers generated 29 polymorphic bands.  Accordingly, the samples were placed in 4 groups. Based on Nei’s genetic distance matrix, a great genetic distance existed between Jolfa and Meianeh populations (0.167) and great genetic similarity existed between Jolfa and Marand populations (0.955). In this research, the results of morphological traits and RAPD markers showed more consistent with each other. Our results showed that RAPD analysis is a suitable method to study genetic diversity and relationships among E. angustifolia populations.

Keywords


Arzani A., and Samei K. (2004). Assessment of genetic diversity among Persian clover cultivars as revealed by RAPD markers. In: Vollmann, J., Grausgruber, H. and Ruckenbauer, P. (ed.), Genetic variation for plant breeding. EUCARPIA and BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, 85-88.

Asadiar L. S., Rahmani F., and Siami A. (2012a). Assessment of genetic diversity in the Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) based on ISSR genetic markers. Revista Ciencia Agronômica, 44: 310-316.

Asadiar L.S., Rahmani F., and Siami A. (2012b). Assessment of genetic variation in Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) based on morphological traits and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genetic markers. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6: 1652-1661.

Barker J. H. A., Matthes M., Arnold G. M., Edwards K. J., Ahman I., Larsson S., and Karp A. (1999). Characterization of genetic diversity in potential biomass willows (Salix spp.) by RAPD and AFLP analysis. Genome, 42: 173-183.

Bauvet J. M., Fontaine C., Sanou H., and Cardi C. (2004). An analysis of the pattern of genetic variation in Vitellaria paradoxa using RAPD marker. Agroforestry Systems, 60: 61-69.

Caetano-Anollés G., Bassam B. J., and Gresshoff P. M. (1991). DNA amplification fingerprinting: A strategy for genome analysis. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 9: 294-307.

Doyle J. J., and Doyle J. L. (1987). A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf material. Phytochemical Bulletin, 19: 11-15.

Kuddus R. H., Kuddus N. N., and Dvorchik I. (2002). DNA polymorphism in the living fossil Ginkgo biloba from the Eastern United States. Genome, 45: 8–12.

Rahman M. O. (2006). Evaluation of RAPD markers for taxonomic relationships in some aquatic species of Utricularia L. (Lentibulariaceae). Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 13: 73-82.

Nei M. (1973). Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences,     USA, 70: 3321-3323.

Sun M., and Lin Q. (2010). A revision of Elaeagnus L. (Elaeagnaceae) in mainland China. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 48: 356-390.

Taghizad A., Ahmadi J., Haddad R., and Zarrabi M. (2010). A comparative analysis of ISSR and RAPD markers for studying genetic diversity in Iranian pistachio cultivars. Iranian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1 : 6-16.

Tucak M., Popovic S., Cupic T., Bolaric S., and Kozumplic V. (2008). Genetic diversity of alfalfa (Medicago spp.) estimated by molecular markers and morphological characters. Periodicum Biologorum, 110: 243-249.

Uzun A., Celik B., Karadeniz T., Yilmaz K. U., and Altintas C. (2015). Assessment of fruit characteristics and genetic variation among naturally growing wild fruit Elaeagnus angustifolia accessions. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 39: 286-294.

Vandemark G. J., Ariss J. J., Bauchan G. A., Larsen C. R., and Hughes J. T. (2006). Estimating genetic relationships among historical sources of alfalfa germplasm and selected cultivars with sequence related amplified polymorphisms. Euphytica, 152: 9-16.

Wang Q., Ruan X., Yan Q. C., HUANG J. h., and XU N. y. (2006). Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 7: 272-278.

Williams J. G. K., Kubelik A. R., Livak K. J., Rafalski J. A., and Tingey S.V. (1990). DNA polymorphism amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Research, 18: 6531-6535.

Zouhar K. (2005). Elaeagnus angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis.

Zhang B. Z., and Zhao K. F. (1996). Study on salt tolerance in Robinia and Elaeagnus angustifolia. Shandong Science, 9: 53-55.