Impact of mycorrhizal fungi and water stress on oil and protein harvest index in sesame

Document Type: Research paper

Authors

1 Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, P. O. Box: 57169-68571, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Abstract

Drought stress is one of the most important environmental stresses affecting plant growth, yield and crop production around the world. It is believed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are used for protecting plants against drought damage.Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been used in recent years to cope with water stress in many plants. In this study, the relationship between water deficit stress and mycorrhizal fungi were analyzed with mycorrhizal dependence index and chlorophyll stability in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications in the research field of Agricultural Research Center, West-Azerbaijan during years 2015 and 2016. The main factors consisted of normal irrigation, moderate and severe water stress and subplots included two different species of mycorrhizal fungi namely, Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices. A non-inoculated plant served as the control. Mean comparison based on 2-years data showed that with increasing severity of water stress, biological water use efficiency (WUBE), oil harvest index (OHI) and protein harvest index (PHI) decreased. Using two kinds of mycorrhizal fungi F. mosseae, R. intraradices compared to non-inoculated, caused an increase in WUBE and PHI about 28 and 20% and 6 and 2%, respectively. Also in three different irrigation conditions, the effect of F. mosseae and R. intraradices was similar on chlorophyll b stability index (CSIb). The maximum and minimum WUBE (0.96 and 0.43 kg/m3), OHI (17.61 and 10.03%) and PHI (9.36 and 5.80%) were obtained under optimal irrigation and severe drought stress conditions, respectively. The maximum (34.69%) and minimum (20.26%) of mycorrhizal dependence index based on biological yield (MDIBY) were observed under severe drought stress and optimal irrigation conditions, respectively. Therefore, inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi (measured by MDIGY and MDIBY) under drought stress caused an increase in the chlorophyll (measured by TCSI). Increasing the chlorophyll led to an enhancement in the photosynthesis and promoted WUEE and WUBE. Improvement of the WUEE and WUBE caused an increase in oil and protein (measured by OHI and PHI). In severe and moderate water stresses mycorrhizal dependence index based on grain yield (MDIGY) and MDIBY increased compared to optimal irrigation. It can be concluded that for achieving high WUEE, WUBE, OHI and PHI, TCSI and as a result tolerance to the water stress can be increased.

Keywords


Ahmadnezhad A., Abedi Kupayee J., and Mousavi S. (2013). The Effect of irrigation regimes and application of mycorrhizal fungi on the efficiency of cultivation of water consumption of sesame product. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology (Water and Soil Science), 17(66): 49–59.

Alizadeh A., and Alizadeh A. (2007). Effects of mycorrhiza in different conditions of soil humidity on nutrient absorption in corn. Research Journal of Agriculture Science, 3(1): 101–108.

Amani M., Golkar P., and Mohammadi-Nejad G. (2012). Evaluation of drought tolerance in different genotypes of Seseame. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 3(4): 226–230.

Arnon D. I. (1975). Copper enzymes increased isolated chloroplast polyphenoxidase increased Beta vulgaris L. Plant Physiology, 45: 1–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1.

Asvadi H., Aghayari F., and Samiee L. (2018). Nanostructured silica aerogel on water use efficiency of corn under deficit irrigation conditions. Journal of Environment Science and Technology, 20(2): 125–140.

Auge R. M., Toler H. D., and Saxton A. M. (2015). Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters stomatal conductance of host plants more under drought than under amply watered conditions: a meta-analysis. Mycorrhiza, 25(1): 13–24. DOI: 10.1007/s00572-014-0585-4.

Bahrami H., Razmjoo J., and Ostadi Jafari A., (2012). Effect of drought stress on germination and seedling growth of sesame cultivars (Sesamum indicum L.). International Journal of Agriculture Science, 2(5): 423–428.

Barea I. M. (1992). YAM as modifier of soil fertility. Advances in Soil Science, 15: 1–40.

Baroowa B., and Gogoi N. (2012). Effect of induced drought on different growth and biochemical attributes of black gram (Vigna radiate L.). Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 6(3): 584–593.

Baylis G. T. S. (1975). The magnolioid mycorrhiza and mycotrophy in root systems derived from it. In: Sanders F. E., Mosse B., Tinker P. B., eds. Endomycorrhizas. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 373–389.

Birhane E., Sterck F. J., Fetene M., Bongers F., and Kuyper T. W. (2012). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and growth of frankincense seedlings under pulsed water availability conditions. Oecologia, 169: 895–904. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2258-3.

Chamberlain A. R. (1952). Measuring water in small channels with WSC flume. Agriculture Experiment Standard Circulation, 200. State College of Washington, Pullman, 1–9.

Deepika S., and Kothamasi D. (2015). Soil moisture--a regulator of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly and symbiotic phosphorus uptake. Mycorrhiza, 25(1): 67–75. DOI: 10.1007/s00572-014-0596-1.

 Dorostkar N., and Pirzad A. (2018). Effect of mycorrhizae species on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of soybean (Glycine max L.) under different irrigation systems. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 12(1): 57–74.

Dossa K., Konteye M., Niang M., Doumbia Y., and Cisse N. (2017b). Enhancing sesame production in West Africa’s Sahel: A comprehensive insight into the cultivation of this untapped crop in Senegal and Mali. Agriculture and Food Security,6: 68–83. DOI: 10.1186/s40066-017-0143-3.

Dossa K., Louis Yehouessi W., Likeng-Li-Ngue Benoit C., Diouf D., Boshou L., Zhang X., Cisse N., and Bell Joseph M. (2017a). Comprehensive screening of some west and central African sesame genotypes for drought resistance probing by agro morphological, physiological, biochemical and seed quality traits. Agronomy Journal, 7(83): 1–18. DOI: 10.3390/agronomy7040083.

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA). (1997). Manual for methods of soil analysis. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: National Service for Soil Survey and Soil Conservation, pp. 212.

Eskandari H., Zehtab Salmasi Z., and Ghasemi Gholozani K. (2010). Evaluation of water use efficiency and grain yield of sesame cultivars in different irrigation conditions as second cultivation. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production,20(1): 39–51.

Gezae A. (2019). Evaluating the economic water productivity under full and deficit irrigation; the case of sesame crop (Sesumum indicum L.) in woreda Kafta-Humera,Tigrai-Ethiopia. Water Science, 33(1): 75–83.  DOI: 10.1080/11104929.2019.1617481.

Ghahramani M., Ebadi A., Parmoon G. H., and Jahanbakhsh S. (2015). Evaluation of drought stresses on photosynthetic indices and forage yield of sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology,7(25): 59–74.

Ghasem Jokar N., Nadian H., Khalil Moghaddam B., Heydari M., and Gharineh M. (2015). The Effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis on growth and proline in Leek (Allium porrum L.) and two Persian leek (Allium Ampeloprasum Ssp. Persicum L.) under drought stress. Plant Production, 38(1): 15–26.

Ghollarata M., and Raiesi F. (2007). The adverse effects of soil salinization on the growth of Trifolium alexandrinum L. and associated microbial and biochemical properties. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39: 1699–1702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.01.024.

Golestani M., Pakniyat H. (2015). Evaluation of traits related to drought stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes. Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 5(9): 465–472. DOI: 10.18488/journal.2/2015.5.9/2.9.465.472.

Habibzadeh Y., Pirzad A., Zardashtai M. R., Jalilian J., and Eini O. (2012). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on seed and protein yield under water–deficit stress in mung bean. Agronomy Journal, 105(1): 79–84. DOI: 10.2134/agronj2012.0069.

Haghighatnia H., Nadian H., Rejali F., and Tavakoli F. (2012). Effect of two species of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi on vegetative growth and phosphorus uptake of Mexican lime rootstock (Citrus aurantifolia) under drought stress conditions. Seed and Plant, 2: 403–417.

Katerji N., and Mastrorilli M. (2014). Water use efficiency of cultivated Crops. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester. In book: e-Life Science. Chapter: Water Use Efficiency of Cultivated Crops, Wiley Online Library, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0025268.

Mahrokh A., Nabipour M., Roushanfekr Dezfouli H., and Choukan R. (2016). Current of photosynthesis and remobilization of assimilate affected spraying growth regulator under drought stress condition on maize cultivar KSC 704. Applied Research Field Crops, 30(1): 1–16. DOI: 10.22092/AJ.2017.108051.1084.

Menge J. A., Johnson E. L. V., and Platt R. G. (1978). Mycorrhizal dependency of several citrus cultivars under three nutrient regimes. New Phytology, 81: 553–559. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1978.tb01628.x.

Moghaddasan Sh., Safipour Afshar A., and Saeid Nematpour F. (2015). The role of mycorrhiza in drought tolerance of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 9(4): 521–532.

Mousavi S. F., and Akhavan S. (2008). Irrigation principles. Kankash Press, pp: 414.

Movahhedi Dehnavi M., Misagh M., Yadavi A., and Merajipoor M. (2017). Physiological responses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) to foliar application of boron and zinc under drought stress. Journal of Plant Process and Function, 6(20): 27–35.

Mugendi Njerua E., Bocci G., Avio L., Sbrana C., Turrini A., Giovannetti M., and Bàrberi P. (2017). Functional identity has a stronger effect than diversity on mycorrhizal symbiosis and productivity of field grown organic tomato. European Journal of Agronomy, 86: 1–11.

Pedranzani H., Rodriguez-Rivera M., Gutierrez M., Porcel R., Hause B., and Ruiz-Lozano J. M. (2016). Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels. Mycorrhiza, 26: 141–152. DOI: 10.1007/s00572-015-0653-4.

Rafiee M., and Kalhor M. (2016). Economic water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids as affected by irrigation regimes: a case study in West Iran. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 62(6): 781–789. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2015.1105360.

Rana U., and Kumari M. (2016). Effect of drought stress on biochemical parameters in common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes. Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry, 29(1): 74–81.

Rayment G. E., and Higginson F. R. (1992). Australian laboratory handbook of soil and water chemical methods, Melbourne, Inkata Press. Australian Soil and Land Survey Handbooks, 3: pp. 330.

Ritchie J. T., and Basso B. (2008). Water use efficiency is not constant when crop water supply is adequate or fixed: The role of agronomic management. European Journal of Agronomy, 28(3): 273–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2007.08.003.

Rodrigues Pereira J., Orlando Carvallo Guerra H., Henrique Zonta J., Renato Cortez Bezerra J., Samara Araujo Barbosa de Almeida E., and Pereira Araujo W. (2017). Behavior and water needs of sesame under different irrigation regimes: III. Production and hydric efficiency. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(13): 1158–1163. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2016.12011.

Ruiz-Sanchez M., Armada E., Munoz Y., Garcia de Salamone I. E., Aroca R., Ruiz-Lozano J. M., and Azcon R. (2011). Azospirillum and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization enhance rice growth and physiological traits under well-watered and drought conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168: 1031–1037. DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2010.12.019.

Sairam R. K., Deshmukh P. S., and Shukla D. S. (2008). Tolerance of drought and temperature stress in relation to increased antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 178: 171–178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.1997.tb00486.x.

Sharifi P., Amirnia R., Majidi E., Hadi H., Roustaii M., Nakhoda B., Mohammad Alipoor H., and Moradi F. (2012). Relationship between drought stress and some antioxidant enzymes with cell membrane and chlorophyll stability in wheat lines. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6(3): 617–623. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR11.1167.

Singh L., Singh P., Gill S., and Tuteja N. (2011). Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 2: 175–191. DOI:  10.4161/psb.6.2.14146.

Smith S. E., and Read O. J. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, New York, pp. 587.

Surendar K. K., Devi D. D., Ravi I., Jeyakumar P., and Velayudham K. (2013). Effect of water deficit on relationship between yield and physiological attributes of banana cultivars and hybrids. African Journal of Plant Science, 7(8): 374–383. DOI: 10.5376/ijh.2013.03.0012.

Suresh G., Murthy I. Y. L. N., Sudhakara Babu S. N., and Varaprasad K. S. (2013). An overview of Zn use and its management in oilseed crops. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research, 11: 1–11.

Tian M., Chen Y. L., Li M., and Liu R. J. (2013). Structure and function of arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 24(8): 2369-2376. http://www.cjae.net/EN/Y2013/V24/I8/2369.

Zamani A., Mortazavi S. A., and Balali H. (2014). Study of economic water efficiency in different crops in Bahar plain. Iranian Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 28: 51–61.